Jawahar Lal Nehru (1947-1964)
The first election was held in 1951-52. Congress bagged 90% of the Lok Sabha seat 300+ seats. The second-largest party was CPI - 12 seats. Since 1947 itself Jawahar Lal Nehru was Prime Minister but was not an elected Prime Minister. During that time, only two prominent leaders were present Jawahar Lal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhai Patel. Gandhi favored Nehru even though the rest of the congress members favored Patel. Nehru became PM in 1947. Nehru was elected only after the first general elections in 1952. Sardar Vallabhai Patel became the Deputy Prime Minister.
|Jawahar Lal Nehru||Sardar Vallabhai Patel|
|Background - Place of Origin||From Kashmir (Kashmiri Pandit) and settled in Allahabad. He was famously called Allahabadi.||From Gujarat|
|Family Background||His father Motilal Nehru, was a Landlord and created Swarajist party.|
So, JLN had a strong Economical and political background.
|Ideology||Socialism Oriented (Russian Socialism). |
But not Communism (Was against single-party domination)
|Indian Civil Service||-- He wanted to abolish ICS.|
-- He considered ICS as a legacy of British Raj.
-- With the help of ICS, Drain of wealth & perpetuation of British rule was done.
|Wanted to retain ICS.|
In India there are 2 executives - Temporary and Permanent.
Politicians Most powerful
May or may not be educated
Laymen related to the department
They are the Government.
-- Less powerful
-- Well educated
-- Highly trained professionals
-- Govt servants To support the government
The govt is unstable hence govt servants should be permanent
So, he is called the patron of civil services.
|Religious Views||He was an Atheist.|
Inclined towards the socialist idea.
In 1948, CPI was banned.
After assassination of Gandhi, RSS was banned.
Lenient to religious groups and lifted both the bans.
He was inclined towards Hindutva.
|Age||6 years younger than SVP||Elder than JLN|
|External measures - Foreign policy.||Internal measures - Integration of states|
|Choosing 1st president of India||He wanted C. Rajagopalachari as the President.||He wanted Rajendra Prasad as the President.|
|Kashmir Matter||Wanted to take Kashmir issue to UNO - UNSC on the request and advice of Mt Batten.||Opposed it |
|Similarity||Both are Congressmen||Both are Congressmen|
|Similarity||Freedom fighters||Freedom fighters|
|Similarity||Went to jail||Went to jail|
|Similarity||Both are Gandhians||Both are Gandhians|
|Similarity||Nation Builders of Post-Independent India||Nation Builders of Post-Independent India|
Irrespective of their differences, after the assassination of Gandhi, buried their differences for nation-building and worked for the uplifting of the nation. Their contribution is unique and immense to the country.
Integration of the princely states
At the time of independence, there were two kinds of territories. ie the princely states (35% - 560 plus states) and British Indian Territory ( 65%). Only a few were big states Eg. Hyderabad, Kashmir, Mysore, Travancore, Rajputana, etc. Many were very small states Eg. Bilbari state where the population was less than 1000 people. The challenge was integration. It would have led to balkanization.
People involved in Integration
- Sardar - Head of States department.
- VP Menon - Secretary to the States department.
- KM Pannikar
Different methods adopted for Integration of India
- Voluntary Integration
- Prolonged Negotiation
- Special Instrument of accession
- Democratic instrument - Referendum
- Army action - Operation POLO - Usman Ali Khan
- Diplomatic relation - French Territory
- 1954 - Integration of foreign territory
- Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe, etc were peacefully handed over.
- Army Action against Portuguese - Operation Vijay in 1962
- 100s of princely states voluntarily integrated
- Without any negotiation
- Eg. Mysore, Jaipur
Negotiators were sent. Some immediately accepted. Some initially hesitated but later accepted. Eg. Travancore - Diwan CP Ramasamy Aiyer - Easily communicable with the rest of the world. Eg. Jodhpur - Because it was easily accessible through Pakistan.
Instrument of accession
- Was signed with all 565 princely states.
- special Instrument of accession was with Kashmir
- Maharaja Hari Singh wanted independent Kashmir
- Mt Batten plan and Indian independence act of 1946 never mentioned anything about the independence of prince states
- Pathan troops with weapons (Pak supported) advanced Kashmir. Hari Singh came to India for help. India asked Hari Singh to sign IOA. India sent the army. SO Pakistan also sent an army to defend the Kashmiri people - 1948 Indo Pak war.
- Both captured some territories. on the advice of Mt. Batten JLN took the matter to UNSC
- USA asked India to join the USA side in the cold war for its support. But Idia was following NAM.
- POK is territory occupied by Pak.
- UN - referendum to be held. - no referendum till now.
Junagarh - Ruler Mohabbat khan but the majority of the people were Hindu. The king proclaimed Junagadh as a part of Pakistan. it was against the will of the people. MA Jinnah immediately accepted. Here MA Jinnah rejected people's choice. People revolted. Mohabbat Khan and his family escaped to Pakistan. The referendum was conducted 95% voted for inclusion into India.
Army action - Operation Polo
Hyderabad was founded by Nizam ul mulk asaf Shah. Since then it has been a princely state.
Hyderabad was the largest & richest state. In 1965 war when India was in need of money the Nizam alone donated 500 kg of gold. It was the size of Germany. This shows the magnitude of power with the Hyderabad state. Had it not been unified with India the consequences would have been very drastic.
Hyderabad was integrated into India only in 1948. The last Nizam Usman Ali Khan wanted to be independent. The people of Hyderabad wanted it to be integrated with India. People agitated. To suppress people by force he appointed a state-sponsored militant force called Razakars.
On the other side, Karimnagar and Warangal saw the rise of communist armed insurgency. The CPI was very violent. By coercion method, they confiscated the land from the landlords. Mean is wrong and the end is correct.
Through Operation POLO India sent the army to Hyderabad and was integrated into India in 13th September 1948.
Ironically, the Hyderabad state was the first state to accept a subsidiary alliance and the last to get integrated into India.
Integration of foreign territory
- Pondicherry Goa Daman Diu.
- Diplomatic relationship France peacefully negotiated with certain conditions.
- 1962 - Police operation - Operation Vijay - Portuguese was integrated
Significance / Implication /Future course of Integration
- Balkanization was avoided
- Preservation of Indian union
- Re-organization of Indian states
It is the integration of of British Indian territory - and princely states - integrated into India.
The integration was done on Linguistic criteria. It was the demand of the people of the southern States to divide based on languages. Mainly the Madras state.
The initial commissions
- The first commission appointed was DHAR commission. It rejected linguistic divisions. Greater cry by southern states.
- The second commission JVP commission(Jawaharlal Nehru-Vallabhbhai Patel-Pattabhi Sitaramayya) also rejected the linguistic division of States.
Taking the examples of German and Italian unification, Religion and language were considered separatist tendency. Already a new country was separated from India based on religion ie. Pakistan. So, Nehru didn't want the states to be divided on the basis of language. Nehru didn't want to set the wrong precident.
Fasting of Potti Sri Ramulu
Potti sreeramulu was a Gandhian. He stayed many years in sabarmati ashram. He went to fasting unto death for the demand of telugu speaking Andhra Pradesh. When the fasting reached 30th day it gathered mass support. On 63rd day he died. This led to unprecedented violence in in Telugu speaking area. This forced the central government to create Andhra state on linguistic basis with Kurnool as capital in 1953 from madras state.
.. now demand by all liguistic regions for a seperate state.
Fazal Ali commission / State reorganisation commission
The members were Fazal Ali, KM Panniker, HA Kunzru. Based on the report in 1956, the 7th amendment act, the State reorganization act was passed. 14 states and 6UTs were made on a linguistic basis.
- Andhra Pradesh
- Madhya Pradesh
- Uttar Pradesh
- West Bengal
- Jammu and Kashmir
Union Territory - North Eastern Frontier Agency
The fear was the disintegration of India. But it proved wrong. It actually strengthened India.
Previous UPSC question
- UPSC mains 2016 - Has the formation of linguistic states strengthened the cause of Indian Unity?
- UPSC mains 2018 - Discuss whether the formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India.
- 2000 3 new states
- The economic disparity can be reduced - Telangana
- Local job for local people
- Avoid LWE - Jharkhand & Chhattisgarh
- Karnataka - Hyderabad Karnataka region
- UP -
- New interstate issues water, resource, boundary KN-TN
- Intra linguistical issue
- Creation of new physical infrastructure
- Is it wise to create new states based on Socio-economic development and language?
- Easy administration
- Doorstep services of government services
- Employment for local people.
- Minority issue will be addressed
- Reduction in Regional disparity
- Eg. Maharashtra - Mumbai only developed.
- Representation in the parliament for more resources - Voice to the local
- Interstate disputes
- Resource distribution
- Water distribution
- Human resource distribution (Bureaucrats, civil servants.)
- More reliance on the center.
- New Infrastructure should be created
- Creating a new capital needs capital.
- May give a precedent to the demand of new states.
- Interstate disputes
The new state should be created to improve the economic conditions of the state. But it should be created only as a last measure when every other measure has failed.
Refugee - Crossing the international
Due to partition, in both western and eastern front refugee problem
|Western Front||Eastern Front|
|The refugee issue started earlier and solved earlier. |
By the 1950s it was solved.
|The refugee issue started late and solved late.|
It was solved only in 2015.
Land boundary agreement between India and Bangladesh.
|Partition was done. |
The partition was done on the basis of religion.
But mainly the Urdu-speaking Muslims from India went to Pakistan.
So, Religion and language acted as criteria for partition.
|The refugee issue started late because only religion was separate. But the language was the same - Bangla. |
Many Muslims and Hindus were reluctant to go into other territories because the language was a unifying force.
Unscrupulous people forced them to relocate.
| Sikhs were the most affected. |
1. They lost Kartarpur the final place of Guru Nanak.
2. They lost the name Punjab, the land of five rivers.
3. They lost well fertile irrigated land.
| Measures taken to solve the Refugee problem are|
2. Part of the issue was solved after the Bangladesh war of liberation in 1971
4. Swap agreement with Bangladesh, 2015
|To solve the land distribution an ICS officer was appointed - Sardar Tarluk Singh.|
| He followed two systems to distribute the Land|
1. Graded Cut - Higher the land lost in Pakistan, the lower the land you'll get in India.
2. Standard Acre System - The land adjusted for infertility of land.
|Delhi from an Islam majority city became a Sikh majority city overnight.|
Side effects of Refugee problem
A certain group of people in India were politically integrated into India after Independence but not socially and economically integrated. The tribals, women, the backward sections of the society.
Integration of the tribals in India
According to the 1971 census, 6.2 % of people were the Scheduled Tribes. Though they were the minority. There was so much division among the tribals themselves. They could be classified into two.
|Tribes of North East||Tribes of rest of India|
|Tribes are a majority in North East||Tribes are a Minority in rest of India|
|They have not yet integrated.||They integrated Politically socially and economically|
|The major demand was a separate state as well as a country.||The major demand was a separate state.|
|Schedule 6 states||Schedule 5 states|
After independence two ideas were put forward before Jawahar Lal Nehru.
|Isolation principle||Assimilation principle|
|Leave the tribal people as such. They know how to preserve their culture and economy||Already for 1000s of years, they are already isolated. |
If they are left isolated, they would become specimens.
Their area will become a museum.
It will be difficult for them to catch up with the rest of India.
|During British rule, tribal revolts happened because of interference with their way of living|
Nehru decided that they would be developed gradually as far as possible by themselves. If an outsider is apointed, they should know the value and ways of tribes.
The government has been taking measures since independence. The kinds
|Constitutional measure||Non-constitutional measure|
|Schedule 5 and 6||Forest rights act 2006|
|National Commission for ST||TRIFED - Marketing|
|Ecotourism in tribal area|
|Freedom of movement with reasonable restriction||SC-ST atrocities act|
|Interline permit||Ekalavya scheme - Tribal residential schools|
|Art. 371 - Special status||Van Mahotsav|
|DPSP 49 -||PESA|
|Discretionary power of governor for the applicability of the central act.|
|Tribal welfare ministry in 4 states.|
Irrespective of the measures there have been issues in Tribal Areas.
|Tribes issues of North East||Tribes issues of rest of India|
|Some want state|
Some want a separate country
|Statehood was the aim.|
Eg. Jharkhand movement - 2000
North East / Undivided Assam
During the British times, the present Arunachal was called NEFA and the rest of the northeast was Assam. Geographically, Assam had two kinds of areas. ie. Plains due to River Brahmaputra and Hills.
The Plains had non-tribal people who spoke Assamese, Bengali, and Hindi. The Hilly region had a Tribal majority. Tribals were multi-ethnic and multi-linguistic.
The criticism against the government
- The tribal people were not given adequate representation by Assam Government
- Assam government wanted to impose the Assamese language on to the whole of Assam
So the demands of the tribals were
- Some wanted a separate state from Assam
- Some wanted a separate country - the Naga group, the Mizo group.
Demand for separate State
But mild naga leaders negotiated with the government for statehood. The first tribal-state was born in 1961, 'Nagaland'.
Demand for separate country
- Nagas -
- Angami Zaphu Phizo was their leader.
- He started Nanga Nationalist Council (NNC)
- They wanted a separate country for the Naga people called Greater Nagaland.
- His imaginary country had present Nagaland and part of Myanmar.
- He promoted Naga Nationalism 'Naga-lism'
- In 1955, he declared independence from India. It was an armed rebellion.
- India sent the Army. He escaped to China. China gave open support to him.
- The leader was Lal Denga.
- His organization was Mizo National Front (MNF).
- In 1966, he declared independence.
- Heavy suppression during the Indira period.
- During Rajeev's period negotiation was successful.
- A separate state was formed
Indias foreign policy is
- Panchsheel with Superpowers
- Non-Alignment with Neighbours
In 1955 Afro-Asian country summit at Bandung NAM was formed. The architects of NAM are JLN, Sukarno (Indonesia), Dito (Yugoslavia), Khwame (Ghana), Abdul Nasser (Egypt).
India USA relationship
"We expected more. But we got less." Both were colonized. largest democracies. American war of Independence was an inspiration for Indias Freedom struggle. Always has strings attached. Eg. PL480 - USA proved 15 Million Tonnes of Wheat to India during Indira period. The string attached was India should Devalue its currency. Eg. 123 Agreement.
The USAs role in Kashmir issue. They wanted give it a cold war colour. We refused to join SEATO and CENTO.
India USSR relationship
Started negatively and ended positively. Sometimes very good relationships. 1971 - India Russia Friendship treaty. Joseph Stalin expected India to join the communist side as the natural course of action for India since India was colonized by capitalist Britain. But India joined NAM. So USSR had strained relations with India till the death of Stalin.
Stalin was replaced by Nikita Kurushev. He visited India. After that good relationships. Military - MIG, tanks, aircraft carrier. Iron and Steel plant - Bhillai, Rourkela. India Russia friendship treaty, 1971. Kodankulam Project.
Panchsheel - It is with all the neighbours.
India China Relationaship / Sino India Relationship
Till 1950, Tibet acted as a buffer state. But in 1950, china occupied Tibet. India said Tibet was an integral part of China. In 1954, the Panchsheel agreement was signed with China. Indo Chini Bhai Bhai. The border issue gradually started between India and China after capturing Tibet.
Border disputes region
- Aksai Chin
- Himachal Pradesh border
- Sikkim (Solved)
- Arunachal Pradesh
Kampa rebellion in Tibet against china in 1959. China response was heavy suppression. Many people migrated to India including Dalai Llama. Dalai Llama was allowed to settle in Tawang monastery. Now, Dharmshala is his Headquarters.
Since India gave asylum to Tibetians and Dalai Llama, China was irked. In 1962, china invaded India in North East. After few weeks they unilaterally withdrew from Arunachal pradesh.
- India-China relationship ended.
- It exposed the military weakness of India.
- Modernization of the Army started.
- We strengthened our borders.
- Creation of Intelligence Bureau.
- SSB in the Indo Nepal border.
- RAW was created.
- ITBP - Indo Tibetan Border Police
- Jawahar Lal Nehru faced his first no-confidence motion in the parliament.
- It worsened the health condition of Nehru.
- Previous Post - 1. Post-Independent Consolidation, an Introduction.
- Next Post -
- Main Post -