Agricultural regions of the world
There are many ways of classifying and regionalizing agriculture. Some of the earliest schemes of agricultural crops 🌾 are those based on agricultural productivity and crop combinations. Such regionalization for crop combination only reflects the type of land used but doesn't represent an agricultural system in all its diversity and components. Agriculture practiced is rarely the reflection of physical factors alone. Apart from the soil, rainfall🌧️, temperature🌡️, and slope consideration, the more important deciding factors are the technology, infrastructure, type of inputs, and techniques of farming.
Derwent Whittlesey's Classification
Whittlesey, therefore, tried to suggest a more holistic basis of Agricultural regionalization accounting for the entire range of factors that can influence agriculture.
The following are 5 variables that he considered.
- Choice of Crops🌾
- Crop 🌾 and Livestock 🐖combination
- Degree of Mechanization 🚜
- Degree of Commercialization 💰
- Infrastructure and Buildings 🏢
Based on the above five factors,Derwent Whittlesey identified the following 13 agriculture types.
The 13 agriculture types / Agricultural regions of the world
- Nomadic herding
- Livestock ranching. 🤠
- Shifting agriculture
- Rudimentary sedentary agriculture
- Intensive Subsistence farming with paddy 🍚 dominance
- Subsistence farming without Paddy dominance (millets maize🌽)
- Commercial grain farming wheat 🌾.
- Commercial mixed farming (crops 🌾+ livestock 🐖)
- Subsistence mixed farming. (crops 🌾+ livestock 🐖)
- Mediterranean agriculture. 🍇🍸
- Plantation agriculture. 🌴
- Commercial dairy farming 🥛🐮🐄
- Specialized horticulture. 🥕🥔🥒🍠🍆🍅🍄🌽
Nomadic pastoralists. They keep cattle 🐄 and migrate with their livestock across seasons. This is a feature of dryland and Semi-arid regions. It is practiced in Central Asia Uzbek horseman Afghan 🏇 horsemen. Africa cattle 🐄 Masai Tribes of Africa largest tribe. Practised in deserts🏜️. sheep🐑 and nomadism are around the oasis🏝️ region. Transhumance gaddi of Himachal Pradesh sheep 🐑 up and goat 🐐 and bakarwals of Kashmir cattle 🐄
- a farm of animal grazing on natural pasturage
- constant or seasonal migration of the nomads
- confined to rather sparsely populated parts of the world
- the natural vegetation is mainly grass.
- concentrated in Saharan Africa (Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Libya, Algeria ).
- The southwestern central parts of Asia
- parts of Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden, Finland ) northern Canada.
- Food Needs of the family
- declining agri system
- the continued movement of people with their livestock in search of forage for the animals.
- The Bedouin of Saudi Arabia and taurag of the Sahara in the desert semi desert areas
- Seasonal pattern of movement.
- Many kinds of animals grazed.
Livestock ranching. 🤠
- permanent ranches where large numbers of cattle sheep goat horses are kept.
- the Americans, Australia, the Republic of South Africa, Brazil Argentina, Peru, New Zealand
- livestock ranchers have fixed place of residence and operate as individuals
- The vegetation cover is continuous.
- There is little or no migration.
- Ranches one scientifically managed.
- The animals are rose for sale.
- slash and burn agriculture
- primitive form agriculture
- tropical rainforests also tropical lowlands hills in the center America, Africa, and Southeast Asia, Indonesia.
- bush fallow agriculture
- ladang in Indonesia,
- Milpa in central America,
- (grow only for his family in this agriculture systems. small surplus are exchanged on bartered sold for cash
- rotation of fields rather than rotation of crops.
- hill tracts of north-east India 86 percent of the people living on hill - shifting cultivation.
- food grains-rice maize-millet- jobs-beans-vegetables- soybean.
Rudimentary sedentary agriculture
- Mostly confined to the tropical lands of Central & South America, Africa, South-East Asia.
- Crop rotation occurs
- Potatoes, Sweet potatoes, Maize, Sorghum, Banana etc are grown.
Intensive Subsistence farming with paddy 🍚 dominance
- confined to the tropical monsoon lands of Asia.
- China. Japan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Srilanka, Malaysia, Philippines etc.
- Farming is intensive
- double or triple cropping - several crops are grown on the same land during the course of a year.
- dry season - other food or cash crop such as sugar tobacco on oil seeds or the fiber crop jute.
- Asian farmer - greater yields per acre - hybrid rice.
Subsistence farming without Paddy dominance (millets maize🌽)
- interior India and North-East China.
- The land is intensively used & worked primarily by human power.
- Farming in these regions suffers from frequent crop failures & famines.
- Wheat, Soya bean, Barley, crops are grown.
Plantation agriculture. 🌴
- estates or plantation
- tropical agriculture
- originally to the British settlements in America
- then in north America , west India, south-east Asia which was cultivated mainly by Negro or other colored labor.
- specialized production of one tropical or subtropical crop raised for market
- Climatic hazards' strong winds, topography, drainage soil vegetation condition prevent the establishment of plantation
- availability of labor
- difficulties of clearing vegetation (tropics)
- pests, weeds,
- rapid deterioration of the tropical soil ,
- soil erosion
- plantation generally large
- found mainly in the thinly populated areas.
- The size of farm varies from 40 hectares in Malaya India, too 60000 hectares in Liberia. I
- large disciplined unskilled labor force is necessary.
- plantation crops are rubber, oil palm, cotton, copra,
- beverages like coffee, tea, coco,
- fruits like pineapples, bananas,
- sugar-cane jute.
- Asia is the leading producer of Jute (96%), rubber (90%) tea (87%) coconut (37%) tobacco (46%) of the total world production Asia share in the production of sugarcane is 39% that of banana , oil palm is 25%
- Estate farming.
- Foreign ownership local labor.
- estates is scientifically managed.
Mediterranean agriculture. 🍇🍸
- Mediterranean region
- where there is winter rain and summer drought
- confined to the coastal areas of the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Asia Minor, North African coastal strip.
- Outside the Mediterranean cost this system is found in California (USA) Central Chile the south-coast of cape province (South Africa) South-West of Western Australia.
- also found in irrigated areas in similar latitudes.
- been largely affected by long day summers occurrence of rains during the winter season devices for artificial irrigation during drought periods of summers.
- Traditional Mediterranean agricultural - barely cultivation
- vine tree crops like the grape olive, fig, small livestock herding particularly of sheep goats pigs.
- In recent times -irrigation - expansion of crops to citrus fruits.
- The Mediterranean - Orchard lands of the world - the heart of the world's wine industry.
Commercial grain farming wheat 🌾.
- specialize in growing wheat on less frequently rice or corn.
- Great wheat belts - Australia, the plains of interior North America, the steppes of Russia, the pampas of Argentina, together the United states, Canada farmer, Soviet union.
- Big farm size
- use of heavy machines
- Low use of irrigation fertilizer
- Low production rate
- Long distance of farm from market.
- (iii) Wheat is the main crop; maize , Barleys, oat are another important crops.
- The wheat production regions
- Winter wheat belt.
- Spring wheat belt.
Commercial mixed farming (crops 🌾+ livestock 🐖)
- throughout Europe Rhineland in the West through central Europe to Russia.
- found in north America pampas in Argentina, Southeast Australia, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand.
- farms produce both crops livestock integrated.
- Mixed farms - high expenditure on machinery
- extensive use of machinery
- fertilizers also by the skill experts
- Urbanized industrialized societies .
- a number of crops are grown.
- cereals dominate
- A large portion of cereals is fed to animals
- Capital input high
Subsistence mixed farming. (crops 🌾+ livestock 🐖)
- Northern Europe, Middle East, Mountain region of Mexico.
- crops & livestock mainly used for own subsistence.
- Traditional way of farming.
- Seeds are poor quality & animals are poorly husbanded.
- Capital input is normally unknown.
- Wheat, Maize, Rye, Barley etc are the main crops.
- Sheep and Goats are the most important animal.
Commercial Dairy Farming 🥛🐄🧀🧈
- The rearing of the cattle for milk and milk products (butter, cheese, condensed milk)
- practiced in Europe, Northern USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Finland, France, and Switzerland.
- 40% of agricultural income.
- capital intensive farming.
- mechanical equipment like milking machines milk freezers, feeding towers, silos for the storage of fodder for winters.
- size of cattle varies from country to country from farm to farm depending on the size of holding.
- (iv) Modern method of daily farming cattle breeding herd management allow high yields of dairy products.
- temperate latitudes Average - 3000kg of milk per year.
- he average production of milk per cow per annum - between 2896kg in Canada to 4284kg in Japan.
- In India it is 1,200 litres of milk per year per cow
- India is the largest producer of milk
- value of milk is more than that of rice and wheat combined So, it is India's biggest agri-produce
- source of income to small and landless agri-house 70 per cent of those earning their livelihood from milk are women
- Dairying provides a source of regular income, whereas income from agriculture is seasonal About a third of rural incomes
- Livestock is a security asset to be sold in times of crisis.
- Indian cattle and buffaloes have among the lowest productivity.
- Milk Cooperatives
- Guj - AMUL
- TN - Avin
- KL - Milma
- KN - Nandini
- AP - Vijaya
- Pondi - Pondley
- Delhi - Mother Diary
Specialized Horticulture. 🥕🥔🥒🍠🍆🍅🍄🌽
- vegetables, fruits, flowers
- Mediterranean agriculture - large scale. Other regions - Specific spot
- vineyards of Europe - most ancient districts
- raising the maximum of crops on the minimum of acres
- Lavish application of purchased fertilizers - high yields and quality
- winter - greenhouses
- in the densely populated industrial districts of north-west Europe, Britain, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, France, Italy.
- located where communication links to consumption centers are good.
- intensively cultivated.
- Soil fertilizers are done by hand labor.
- scientifically managed to achieve optimum yields and returns.
- Commercial fruit orchard - apples, cherries, and pears
- The Rhine, the Loire, the Swiss lakes, and the plain of northern Hungary - Grapes Wines
- Mendoza, San Juan of Argentina, etc. (grapes production )
- southwestern Germany Nova Scotia, the Lower Great Lakes, the Middle Appalachians, and the Ozark (apple).
- south Arab and Iraq for dates
- India and South-East Asia for spices, pineapple, mango
- Sugar beet tobacco flax and hemp cotton
Main Post - Geography Optional Syllabus
For Agricultural Regions of India - Click Here