With the diversity of soil forming factors and processes there are innumerable types of soils on earth. Soil classification is a technique in grouping soil based on some proper parameters so as to study soils more objectively.
He was a Russian pedologist. His was the first attempt in soil classification.
There are two ways of classification.
- on the basis of genesis - primary condition is climate
- On the basis of soil property / morphological classification
Genetic classification based on climate is more appropriate in geographical perspective because it can detail pattern of soil distribution and relate it to the climate types across the world.
If not specified in the question, the genetic scheme needs to be detailed while morphological is mentioned.
Morphological classification is more detail and more relevant in agriculture planning. It is difficult to make a world map on the basis of rock property.
Doku Chiev gave the first scheme and was modified by Glinka. Both of them where Russians.
Marbut modified Glinkas scheme for America. Eventually he expanded it for the world soil types.
Marbut classified the soils on the basis of soil forming factors.
broadly there are three types of soils
|dry and semi-arid - capillary action (Pedocal)||humid and wet - leaching (Pedalfer)|
- pedalfer soil of cool humid region
- Represented in taiga
- The process is podsolization.
- Formed due to leaching in the presence of chelating agents
- Aluminium and iron oxides are more mobile and form sesquioxides. They become thick hard iron pans.
- Acidic greyish in colour.
- Not the best for agriculture
- Lumbering is the main activity
- variants of laterites
- Leaching and laterization process
- Condition required is humid and warm
- Good formation of laterites. Alternate wet and dry conditions - uplands monsoonal
- Silicon is more mobile and hence leached.
- B illuviated layer is silicon enriched
- Soil is red in colour because of iron and aluminium oxides.
- Aluminium is acidic in nature.
Morphological classification of soil.
- On the basis soil properties
- Properties nutrients texture soil profile soil horizons PH value colour
- This is a very detailed scheme
- It has application in agriculture planning
This classification is not the best scheme in understanding the spatial pattern of soil distribution.
- Lato ??