CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity)
- Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit
- Dedicated to promoting sustainable development.
- Conceived as a practical tool for translating the principles of Agenda 21 into reality
- The Convention recognizes that biological diversity is about more than plants, animals and microorganisms and their ecosystems, it is about people and our need for food security, medicines, fresh air and water, shelter, and a clean and healthy environment in which to live.
- The CBD entered into force on 29 December 1993.
- The Secretariat of the Convention is located in Montreal, and administered by the United Nations Environment Programme
- Entry into force: 29 Dec 1993
It has three main objectives:
- the conservation of biological diversity
- the sustainable use of its components;
- the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
- The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the CBD is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
- The Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
- It establishes an advance informed agreement (AIA) procedure for ensuring that countries are provided with the information necessary to make informed decisions before agreeing to the import of such organisms into their territory.
- The Protocol contains a reference to a precautionary approach and reaffirms the precaution language in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.
- The Protocol also establishes a Biosafety Clearing-House to facilitate the exchange of information on living modified organisms and to assist countries in the implementation of the Protocol.
Topics: Agro biodiversity, biosafety, biotechnology, clearing-house mechanism, genetically modified organism, living modified organism, prior informed consent, genetic resource, illegal trade
Entry into force: 11 Sep 2003
Parent treaty: CBD
- The Nagoya Protocol is on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
- An international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies, taking into account all rights over those resources and to technologies, and by appropriate funding, thereby contributing to the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components.
- It was adopted by the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity at its tenth meeting on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan. Entry into force: 12 Oct 2014
Topics: Benefit sharing, utilization durable
Parent treaty: CBD
Conservation of Flora and Fauna
CMS (Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals)
- an environmental treaty under the aegis of the UNEP
- CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
- CMS brings together the States through which migratory animals pass, the Range States, and lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.
- As the only global convention specializing in the conservation of migratory species, their habitats and migration routes, CMS complements and co-operates with a number of other international organizations, NGOs and partners in the media as well as in the corporate sector.
- Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed on Appendix I of the Convention.
- Migratory species that need or would significantly benefit from international co-operation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention.
Topics: Endangered species, migratory species, species
Entry into force: 1 Nov 1983
- CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
- CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimens of selected species to certain controls.
- All import, export, re-export, and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Convention has to be authorized through a licensing system.
- Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities in charge of administering that licensing system and one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species.
- The CITES Secretariat is administered by UNEP and is located in Geneva, Switzerland.
Topics: Agro biodiversity, conservation, endangered species, species, sustainable use, illegal trade
Entry into force: 1 Jul 1975
International Whaling Commission
- set up under International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW)
- Japan to continue commercial whaling
- adopted in 2013, Japan
- Came into force in 2017
- India flexible use until 2025
- India is a party to the convention
- Controls trans boundary movement of mercury
- But it doesn't include natural emissions of mercury.
- Bio accumulates
- Bio magnifies
- Impacts the nervous system
Vienna Convention (Ozone)
- For the Protection of the Ozone Layer
- And its Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
- With 197 parties, together are the most widely ratified treaties in United Nations history
- Enabled reductions of over 97% of all global consumption of controlled ozone-depleting substances (measured in ODP tonnes).
- Ozone-depleting potential,
- ozone layer depletion,
- sustainable use,
- sound environmental management,
- cleaner production
- Entry into force: 22 Sep 1988
- India and Ozone
- Vienna in 1991
- Montreal in 1992
- Ozone cell - MoEF - for Indias phasing out plan
- Complete tax exemption for non-ODS technology imports.
Montreal protocol (CFC)
- On Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
- Was designed to reduce the production and consumption of Ozone-depleting substances in order to reduce their abundance in the atmosphere.
- Agreed on 16 September 1987
- Entered into force on 1 January 1989.
- Entry into force: 1 Jan 1989
- Parent treaty: Vienna Convention
Kigali Agreement (HFC)
- Held in Rwanda updated 1987 Montreal protocol
- To phase out HFCs
- CFCs were phased out in Montreal protocol
- Introduced during the 1990s
- This GHG is not dealt in Paris Deal
- Alternative of HFC
- Hydro floro olefins
- Legally binding from 2019
- Group 1 Countries - 2019 10%, 2045 85% (Developed Countries)
- Group 2 Countries - 10% of 2022 by 2029, 2045 80% (Developing Countries)
- Group 3 Countries - 2028, 10% 2032, 80% 2047 (Developing Countries)
Stockholm convention on POP
- The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
- A treaty to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods
- They become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of humans and wildlife, and have adverse effects on human health or to the environment.
- Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can lead to serious health effects like
- Certain cancers,
- Birth defects,
- Dysfunctional immune and reproductive systems,
- Greater susceptibility to disease and
- Diminished intelligence.
- POPs have long-range transport
- Requires Parties to take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment.
- The Convention is administered by the UNEP and is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
- Keywords: chemical, clearing-house mechanism, prior informed consent, waste management, pesticide, health, hazardous waste, waste
- Was adopted in 2001; Entry into force: 17 May 2004
- The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
- It is the most comprehensive global environmental agreement on hazardous wastes and other wastes.
- The Convention aims to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects resulting from the generation, Trans-boundary movements, and management of hazardous wastes and other wastes.
- Was adopted in 1989 and came into force: 5 May 1992
- Keywords: Chemical, pesticide, hazardous waste.
- The objectives of the Rotterdam Convention
- PIC (Prior Informed Consent) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade
- To promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts among Parties in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm
- To contribute to the environmentally sound use of those hazardous chemicals, by facilitating information exchange about their characteristics, by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export and by disseminating these decisions to Parties.
- Keywords: Prior informed consent, Chemical, Waste management, Pesticide, Hazardous waste.
- Entry into force: 23 Feb 2004
Paris Deal 2015
Conservation of Heritage
- To safeguard and support the world's agricultural heritage systems.
- It aims at the search for
- the economic viability of the system,
- the identification of environmentally sustainable strategies in the face of growing climate change,
- and the empowerment of smallholder/traditional family farming and indigenous communities
- Indian GIAHS sites
- Saffron Heritage of Kashmir - 2011
- Koraput Traditional Agriculture - 2012
- floristic diversity consisting of about 2500 species of flowering plants, food security, biodiversity, indigenous knowledge, and cultural diversity for sustainable and equitable development.
- food security, biodiversity, indigenous knowledge and cultural diversity for sustainable and equitable development
- Kuttanad Below Sea Level Farming System - 2013
- Only rice cultivation below sea level since the past 2 centuries in India
- 50,000 ha of mostly reclaimed delta swamps
- Popularly known as "Puncha Vayals"
- The World Heritage Convention defines the kind of natural or cultural sites which can be considered for inscription on the World Heritage List.
- The States Parties are encouraged to integrate the protection of the cultural and natural heritage into regional planning programs, set up staff and services at their sites, undertake scientific and technical conservation research and adopt measures that give this heritage a function in the day-to-day life of the community.
- The most significant feature of the Convention is that it links together in a single document the concepts of nature conservation and the preservation of cultural properties.
- It recognizes the way in which people interact with nature, and the fundamental need to preserve the balance between the two.
- Established in 1992, the World Heritage Centre ensures the day-to-day management of the Convention and is coordinator within UNESCO for all matters related to World Heritage.
- Keywords: Cultural heritage, protected area, ecosystem management, sustainable tourism, sustainable use.
- Entry into force: 15 Aug 2014