- The cultural commonality of Buddhism
- Japan's victory over Russia in 1905 was a morale boost to India's National Movement
- Subash Chandra Bose evinced military support from Japan to build Indian National Army
Relations Phase wise
- Phase I (1947-70)
- No strong ties, just economic and cultural. No focus on strategic.
- 1952 – Diplomatic Establishment
- 1958 – ODA from Japan
- Initial years of Independence. India supported China which was an enemy of Japan.
- India followed NAM and Japan was an ally of the U.S.
- India was a mixed and backward economy, uninteresting to capitalist Japan
- India was against Japan in both the Korean and Vietnam wars.
Two events change Japanese perception of India
- 1966 Green Revolution
- 1971 – Indo-Pak War India becomes technologically and militarily capable in the eyes of Japan
- Phase II (1970-1998)
- 1974 Nuclear Tests become an irritant and Japan wanted India to join NPT.
- Relations remain sour until Rajiv Gandhi's visit which improved after until 1998 test after which Japan imposed economic sanctions against India.
Reasons for Sanctions
- Japanese sensitivity to nuclear weapons
- India's act may trigger N.Korea
- U.S. pressurized Japan
Sanctions couldn't continue for long
- India's economic rise post-1991.
- China as a rising threat.
- Japan wanted to reduce excessive dependence on the U.S.
- Phase III (2000 – till date) Development of Strategic along with political and economic
- PM Hashimoto Mori – Visit in 2000 – Global Partnership in 21st century
- PM Koizumi visit – "Conversions of Strategic Interest".
Components of Strategic
- Political UNSC reform
- Economic – Aid and Trade
- Security – Antiterrorism, anti WMD and maritime security
- Man mohan Singh visit – 2006
Indo-Japan Global and Strategic Partnership – 5 pillars of co-operation.
- Defense and Security
- S &T initiatives
- People to people, multilateral and regional co-operation. After this visit "Annual Summit Level Dialogue" initiated. (For Current Affairs refer class notes)