"Russia is a Pacific Power which has Indian Ocean interests" while "India is an Indian Ocean power with very strong and growing Pacific interest"
Transition of India and Russia from Pre-1991 to post 1991 is of an "Unequal partnership" to "Equal Partnership"
Important events and responses
- Initially because of NAM and South Asia not being a theatre of the cold war USSR was not interested in India.
- The formation of SEATO in 1954 and Pakistan becoming the member changed the dynamics.
- India had no option but to go for USSR.
- India voted with USSR in 1956 on issue of democratic election in Hungary.
- Sino-Soviet border difference brought them together in 1962 war.
- 1965 – Indo-Pak, Tashkent agreement mediated by USSR
- 70s – Development of U.S – Pak – China Axis.
- 1971 – India-USSR Treaty of Friendship, Peace, and Co-operation
- Terms of Treaty
- Peaceful Cooperation and coexistence of different social and political system.
- Mutual respect for independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity.
- Condemned colonialism and racism.
- Committed for disarmament and strengthening peace in Asia.
- Attached great importance to technological, scientific and economic co-operation.
- 1979 – U.S.S.R invasion of Afghanistan, India maintains silence.
Post – 1991 phase
Collapse of USSR
- Denial of Cryogenic technology
- Rupee – Ruble Controversy
Reasons for renewed interest in Russia
- No tangible benefits from U.S.
- After 1989 in Afghanistan, Taliban came to power which supported Kashmir in 1990. Russia and India supported Northern Alliance
Result – 1993 Treaty of Peace and Friendship
Establishment of Strategic Partnership
With the coming of Putin, his urgency to restore Russia's status led his focus on India and Iran
- Russia criticized Pokhran – 2 but did not put any sanctions.
- Kargil conflict – Russia supported India.
- In October 2000 – Declaration on strategic partnership between India and Russia.
Areas of Strategic Partnership
- Science and Technology
- Energy and Trade
- 2002 – Delhi Declaration, with Putin's visit to Delhi. Two more areas were added. Terrorism and Promotion of Cultural Co-operation
- 2010 – Special and Privileged strategic partnership
- Relation on a serious note in this sector only in 1962. More than 70% of Indian defence equipment is of Russian origin. Rupee – Ruble agreement gave a push to this
- Technology transfer was a distinguishing feature except a small irritant of cryogenic technology.
- Crisis of vast military-industrial complexes of soviet.
- No spare part supplier
- India moves to Israel and France
- Then Indo-Russian Intergovernmental council on Military-Technical co-operation (IRTGC-MTC) platform was set up to resolve teething issues. Post-1991 joint working becomes a norm.
- Brahmos Missile
- T-90 tanks
- INS Vikramaditya
- Relations between India and Russia are rooted in history, mutual trust and mutually beneficial cooperation.
- After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, India and Russia entered into a new Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in January 1993 and a bilateral Military-Technical Cooperation agreement in 1994.
- Tools of political relations are:
- 1. Annual Summits : Summits help each side to build trust and faith to achieve common set of goals. It also provides an occasion for both nations to deepen their friendship & to exchange views on international & regional issues.
- 2. Intergovernmental Commissions : This is a regular high-level interaction between 2 countries useful in establishing strong ties. So, far 2 IGC's establish on following: a) Trade, Economic, Scientific Technological & Cultural Cooperation, b) Military Technology Cooperation.
- 3. Bilateral Interactions : This help in improving mutual understanding & provide a better-informed basis for future policy dialogue between two nations.
- 4. Consultations : It helps in identifying a plan for solving their problems & accomplishing goals, e.g., Various issues resolved through Raisina Dialogue.
DEFENSE & SCURITY COOPERATIONS:
- India has long standing & wide-ranging cooperation with Russia in field of defense.
- Relation has evolved from a buyer-seller to JOINT R&D and Production of advanced defense technologies & systems, e.g., Increase range of Brahmo Missile System, SU30 aircrafts & T-90 tanks.
- Tri-Exercise INDIRA helped in strengthening field, marine & flight skills. Military Industry Conference played a prominent role in improving public & private participation.
- Based on Rupee-Ruble agreement, dismantled in 1992 which led to a decline in trade. Today there are India-Russia Inter Governmental Joint Commission on Trade and India-Russia Forum on Trade and investments.
- Bilateral trade is only around $8 billion compared to china $66 billion
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF TRADE BETWEEN INDIA-RUSSIA:
|Mineral fuels, mineral oils & mineral waxes.||Pharmaceutical products|
|Precious & Semi-Precious Stones||Electrical machinery & appliances.|
|Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery & appliances.||Nuclear reactors, boilers, machineries & accessories.|
|Electrical machineries & there parts.||Organic Chemicals.|
|Fertilizers||Vehicles except railways.|
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SPACE& NUCLEAR ENERGY COOPERATION:
- It began with signing of Science & Technology Agreement between India & USSR in 1972.
- To further strengthen relation in S&T sector 3 institutional mechanisms were launched:
- 1. Working Groups,
- 2. ILTP( Integrated Long-Term Programme) &
- 3. Basic Science Cooperation Programme.
- Recently, Department of S&T launched India-Russia joint Technology Assessment & Accelerated Commercialization Programme it aims at increasing joint R&D in small & medium enterprises & Start-ups.
- Both sides cooperate in peaceful uses of outer space areas which includes following:
- 1. Satellite Launches,
- 2. GLONASS navigation system,
- 3. Remote sensing applications.
- Recently, ISRO & ROSCOSMOS inked in the field of Human Spaceflight Programme GAGANYAAN.
- Other domains are also under consideration these are:
- 1. Production of Space System in I
- Rocket systems,
- 3. Propellants & Propulsion systems,
- 4. Space craft & Launch vehicles.
- In NUCLEAR ENEGRY India is an important partner of Russia. It recognises India as a country with advanced nuclear technology with an impeccable non-proliferation record. KUNDANKULAM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT is being built by Russian Cooperation. As well INDIA-RUSSIA-BANGLADESH signed trilateral agreement for implementation of ROOPPUR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT construction in BANGLADESH.
- Over dependence on arms to push bilateral relations
- Lack of awareness about commercial opportunities in each other's territory.
- Language barriers
- Custom barriers
- No geographical connectivity
Reason for concern for India
Demographically Russia is shrinking & oligarchic control of Russia making external business hard to enter its market as well state privileges to their own businessman. In short, Russian markets are semi-permeable so we need to be target specific based on own interest of growth e.g., Far East Russia gas extraction.
China Factor-Pre NSSA-Russia-China were competitor but post NSSA Russia-China are partnering to block US moves in global markets. Russia is promising to give next generation aircrafts to China in COMPLUSION due to some strategic location issues e.g., Bering sea.
Pakistan Factor-Russia in recent signed a treaty of Naval Cooperation with Pakistan which signalling India as other option to sell their manufactured products. Russia supports Pakistan's position on Afghanistan and the Taliban peace talks. This is contrary to what India believes in.
Recent Initiatives to solve them
- Proposal of India-Eurasian Economic Union FTA
- International North-South Transit corridor
- THERE ARE TWO OBJECTIVES OF INSTC:
- 1. TO INCREASE TRADE CONNECTIVITY BETWEEN MAJOR CITIES OF THE REGION.
- 2. TO IDENTIFY AND ADDRESS KEY BOTTLENECKS & ISSUES WITH TRADE SURPASSING THROUGH THEM.
- Development for a Green Corridor for Custom facilitation. Green Corridor' is for smooth facilitation of goods to enhance bilateral trade that has performed far below potential despite the strong political ties. The main advantage of the 'green corridor' is that goods being transported by entrepreneurs will not have to undergo customs inspection and examination when crossing the border.
Previous years questions
- 2018 - India Russia relationship is described as a "special & privileged strategic partnership" it is so, but, only in name. Critically analyse in light of the recent India-Russia Summit? (250 words)
- 2020 - What is the significance of India-US defense deals over INDO-RUSSIA defense deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. (250 words)
Important Links - Main Post - India and its neighbors