Development and Social Well-Being
Development is a subjective concept. Its scope can be defined in many ways. Different countries choose to define their developmental achievements according to their levels of development.
Development is also a dynamic concept. It changes with time. The HDR report defines development as a process of enlarging choices across economic, social, and political issues.
But HDI doesn't capture all the aspects of social and political achievements such as political freedom, rights against unlawful detention, social participation, perception about technology, and the ability to adapt and adopt the technology.
The HDR report acknowledges the importance of all-round development. It also accepts that quantifying and developing an index to capture all aspects of development is not easy. Hence the concept of social well-being.
Social well-being is a broad expression to capture all aspects of achievement and self-worth of individuals. Social well being can be explained in three dimensions.
The three dimensions of Social Well-Being
- Domain of Being
- Domain of Becoming
- Domain of Belonging
Domain of Being
It is about what a person in terms of his physical state, his occupation, and his emotional state. The being domain is about what a person feels about himself and what he things how he is perceived by others. It includes his income education and socioeconomic status.
Domain of Becoming.
it is the aspirational component of what a man seeks to achieve. It is about as future his hope his ambitions and why he does what he does.
Domain of Belonging.
it is a relational component of development. It includes the feeling of being a worthy contributor to the contributor in society at all levels family neighborhood workspace and even at an international and national level. It is the feeling that one has the capacity by virtue of his relationship with others.
Human development is a very broad subjective concept and all the above concepts are valid concepts even though we may not have objective measures as of now to depict them and quantify them.
Social capital is the relational component of development. It is much like the domain of belonging in social well being. It is increasingly acknowledged that relationship, interpersonal, and inter social interactions are crucial determinants in all aspects of human development. Social capital is the sum total of collaborations, corporations, and participations based on trust and reciprocity. It is a resource which is beyond conventional sense of resources. According to Black and Hughes, there are four types of capital.
Four types of capital
- Natural capital - natural resources
- Produced capital - products of human activity including culture
- Human capital
- Social capital
total of human labour skills knowledge and talent which is important to convert natural resources into produced capital
relationship collaboration teamwork trust without which other capitals cannot be used or its benefits sustained. It is one of the prerequisites in achieving developmental goals.
The concept of social capital was first given by Pierre Bourdieu, a French cultural theorist who was trying to explain the process of social dominance and subordination in French society.
The modern concept was given by American social theorist Robert Putman who was trying to understand how social hierarchy develops in American society. His ideas were in the book 'making democracy work' and his concept was acknowledged by the World Bank.
Social capital operates in three ways.
The interrelationship and sense of belonging within a group which is similar in terms of population. Relationship and association between members who have similarities and the group which is relatively a homogeneous group. It is the earliest form of relationship.
Collaboration and association between individuals and groups that are dissimilar for whom may seem perceptively opposed to another. Bridging is the most difficult component of interrelationship and lack of bridging is the basis of racism, communal violence, and cultural conflicts. Most countries and India in particular are yet to invest and use their official machinery to promote bridging. The role of media and government institutions play an important role in making it happen.
Linking is a relationship developing across different hierarchical groups.
- senior management and workers.
- Bureaucracy and masses.
- Upper caste and lower caste.
- Higher class and lower class.
Social capital can be initiated, fostered, and strengthened by an interplay of trust, reciprocity, and mutuality.
- Trust- faith
- Reciprocity - the feeling that a good deed will result in a positive response.
- Mutuality - A sense of interdependence and respecting the efforts of all groups that make up the team.
Social capital as a virtue can't be the automatic outcome and the natural consequence of economic and social achievement. It needs to be deliberately fostered. Social capital on the other hand can automatically guarantee economic and social development.