The Northern Indian plains are depositional plains (alluvial) formed by the sedimentation of river on depression (foredeep) due to subduction.
- The Indus plains
- The trans Ganga plains
- The Ganga plains
- The Brahmaputra plains
Khadar and Bangar
Khadar - They are newer and younger deposits of flood plains. They are fertile because they are renewed every year.
Bhangar - They are older Alluvial deposits. They lie above present flood plains ie Khadar. They are less fertile than Khadar plains.
In Bangar ie older flood plains, Calcarious deposits are formed. In the North Western part of India they are called Kankar. It is absent in heavy rainfall areas because calcareous deposits dissolve in water.
Bhabar and Terai
Bhabar - Narrow belt of about 10 kilometre south of shivaliks at the breakup of slope. It contains deposits from mountains like rocks and boulders. The streams and rivers disappear here due to high porosity of sediments like pebbles.
Terai - South of bhabar belt the streams and rivers re-emerge and create wet, swampy and marshy region. It is thickly forested area full of wildlife.
The very fertile Khadar Plains of Punjab
They are seasonal streams that carve out deep rills in the Northern part of Punjab especially Hoshiarpur District.
They are playa lakes like the Sambhar Lake of Rajasthan. They are used for extraction of salt.
These are sand formation in Ganga Yamuna doab which have been formed by deposition of winds.
Bhils and Chuars
In the lower Ganga Plains of West Bengal Khadar is known as Bhil and Bangar is known as Chuar but Khankar is not found here.
Duars or Dooars
They are Terai regions in the Northern part of Bengal and Assam. In Nepali and Assamese language Duar mean doors to the Himalayas. This region is important for Tea, Timber cultivation and tourism.
Lacustrine (associated with lakes) deposits found in Kashmir Valley. Important for cultivation of of saffron /Zafran.